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The development of new ideas and attitudes in the understanding of Shakespeare

In contrast to the critics who viewed Shakespeare from a historical point of view, others appeared who represented a completely new school. G. Wilson Knight, in a literary essay published in 1928, outlined five "basic principles of the interpretation of Shakespeare": we must write it strictly guided by our aesthetic perception of Shakespeare's poetry; begin the interpretation of any work first of all from the work itself; pay more attention to style modifications in individual plays; to study and compare poetic images in all the works of Shakespeare; consider the plays from 1599 to 1611 (i.e., from "Julius Caesar" to "The Storm") as a series of works that are closely related to each other. Wilson Knight developed these theories in a number of works, starting with the book The Fiery Wheel, Critical Essays on the Dark Tragedies of Shakespeare (1930). His writings represent the most significant contribution to modern criticism of Shakespeare and are the most authoritative analysis of the poetic symbolism of Shakespeare's plays.


Wilson Knight recognized Bradley's authority; on the other hand, L. C. Nate spoke of Bradley’s views, in particular in his polemical essay “How many children did Lady Macbeth have?”, whose name deliberately parodied those critics who saw in the characters of Shakespeare just people, not dramatic characters. Nu personal opinion about the poetic construction of "Macbeth" was set forth in his book "Literary Studies" (1946).


Studying the language and imagery of Shakespeare was, perhaps, the most powerful stimulus for the development of new ideas and attitudes in the understanding of his work. First of all, the book by G. Reilands “Words and Poetry” (1928) and then the book written by Caroline Spurgeon, “Imagery of Shakespeare and what she tells us” appeared in this area. C. Spurgeon writes: “As far as I know, no one has yet paid attention to the fact that repetitive images play an important role in tragedies, because they not only re-evoke emotions, but also deepen and support them - to some extent similar to as the same musical theme is repeated in a fugue or sonata, or a leitmotif in Wagner's opera.


In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare presents all the beauty and ardor of young love as the radiant splendor of sunshine and the silver radiation of stars in the world of darkness. Here, the dominant image is light, in all its forms and forms: the sun, moon, stars, fire, lightning, powder flash, and finally the glow reflecting beauty and love, which are opposed to - night, darkness, clouds, fog and smoke.


Hamlet, on the other hand, is filled with a completely different atmosphere. If we look at this play more closely, we will see that this is partly due to the number of images representing illness, malaise and physical disabilities, and it will become clear to us that the symbol of the ulcer and tumor reflecting the unhealthy state of Denmark at that time is the dominant way of the play. ”


Later, more specialized books on the language of Shakespeare appeared, such as Rough Humor in Shakespeare's Plays (1947) by Eric Partridge, Word Play in Shakespeare's Works by Molly Mahud (1957), and Hilda M. Hume's book Investigation on the language of Shakespeare: some lexical problems in interpreting the text of the plays "(1962). We constantly need such research; A good example is the short essay by F. P. Wilson “Shakespeare and everyday speech” (1944).


For modern criticism is characterized by its diversity. L. S. Nayte, explaining "some new directions" in Shakespeare's criticism, in his book "Some Shakespeare's Themes" (1959) stated that "one should encourage thinking about the dynamics of plays, and not seek unanimity". Modern Shakespearean critics are trying to reflect the complexity of the art of Shakespeare and give us the opportunity to travel back to his time, his theater and his poetry. But she realizes that great fiction is "not only an object for serious research, but above all a source of strength" and that "Shakespeare in his poetry was himself a researcher who discovered new depths." Different currents in modern criticism merge one into the other and enrich each other, but the stream of Shakespearean criticism has no end.


The All-Union State Library of Foreign Literature kindly provided us with a list of works by English authors on Shakespeare — from Dr. Johnson in the 18th century to the present day — available in Russian translations. Populaire chat sexe avec des femmes adultes MyFreeCams qui aiment le sexe virtuel en ligne.